More than 100 governments they approve in Dublin the text of an international treaty to prohibit the cluster pumps, that are had been using during 40 years. When the Spanish Government ratifies the new treaty, both models of pumps that make here will be prohibited. Final S.A. of the decade of 90 saw the light the Treaty of Ottawa by which the use, the manufacture, the sale and the storage of the mines were prohibited person, now we have managed to reinforce the international right with a new treaty to prohibit the cluster pumps. In Dublin, the diplomatic conference has been celebrated that it concluded with the approval of this new international convention. International governments, organizations and civil society, all we have united efforts to end the enormous suffering that brings about between the civil populace the use of this type of armament. The cluster pumps are like containers that, once sent from earth, sea or air, are abren and in his trajectory they drop from tens to hundreds of explosive charges.
These the ammunition are scattered by an ample zone, of an extension similar to the one of three football grounds, and act of indiscriminate form, without distinguishing between civilian and military objectives. They have out of proportion effects that extend in the time. These loads would have to explode when they arrive at earth, but often this does not happen. One calculates that 5% enter and 30% of the ammunition stay until somebody active – many young young occasions and attracted by its color and form makes contact with enemy with them and the explosion takes place. The cluster pumps have killed and hurt to tens of thousands of innocent civilians since they were used for the first time during World War II. Later, these ammunition have been used in Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and also, in summer of the 2006, to the south of the Lebanon.
We present/display small colleja to the visions New Age of the cancer (cause and treatment). Indeed, the reference to a type of personality (" is common place; C") predisposed to the development of cancer, and characterized for want of assertiveness, excessive fulfillment social, and mainly lacking of expresividad of negative emotions (particularly wrath). Nevertheless, no evidence of this exists, neither of the influence of stress or important vital events in the beginning of the cancer, nor in its evolution or rate of survival (Harris and Moadel M: Cancer. In Comprehensive Handbook of Clinical Health Psychology, ed. Boyer and Paharia. Wiley 2007).
With respect to the tactical mission of the psycotherapy and its supposed medical effect – in the survival, generally, for more than 20 years the supposed effectiveness of the same has been assumed by the general public and sometimes by some onclogos to extend the life expectancy. Both great icons of this tendency are the studies of Spiegel ET to (1989) and of Fawzy ET to (1993). Coyne ET to, (Psychotherapy and Survival in Cancer: The Conflict Between Hope and Evidence), denounced the methodologic deficiencies (aliquots, inadequate selection of patients), the errors of statistical interpretation, and finally they gave to the benefit of the psychotherapeutic group to abnormally negative rates of evolution of the cancer in the groups control (additionally they gathered several metanlisis that did not find medical effect some). In a recent number of Psychological Bulletin (2009, Bowl 135, no. 2) Spiegel and its colleagues they talk back, and Coyne and theirs contrarreplican. Although yes there is evidence of the positive influence of the psycotherapy in aspects like quality of life, perception of pain, fits psycho-social, the certain thing is that those two studies were evaluated years ago (possibly in a sociocultural context of desestigmatizacin of the cancer) and have stayed as politically correct icons that only recently have been put in doubt.
From this last case it derives the hostility towards the culture. Freud examines here what factors do to the origin of the culture, and which determined their later map course. From the beginning, the primitive man understood that to survive he had to organize conotros human beings. In " Totem and Tab" it had already been seen how of the primitive family one went to the brotherly alliance, where the mutual restrictions (taboo) allowed the restoration of the new social order, more powerful than the isolated individual. That restriction took to turn aside the sexual impulse towards another aim (impulse limited in its aim) being generated a species of love towards all the humanity, but that did not annul totally the direct sexual satisfaction either.
Both variants look for to unite to the community with bows stronger than the derivatives of the necessity to organize itself to survive. But soon a conflict between the love and the culture arises: the love is against the interests of the culture, and it threatens this one it restrictions. The family defends the love, and the amplest community the culture.The culture restricts the sexuality annulling its manifestation, since the culture needs energy for its own consumption. In " Beyond the principle of placer" two instincts had been postulates: of life (Eros), and aggression or death. Both are not isolate and can be complemented, like for example when the aggression directed towards goes saves to the subject of the autoagresin, that is preserves their life. The libido is the energy of the Eros, but more than this, the greater obstacle is the aggressive tendency than it is against the culture. The mutual aggressions between the human beings make be in danger the same society, and this one does not only stay united by survival needs, of here the necessity to generate loving bows between the members.